Wednesday, February 3, 2016

Benjamin Franklin Summary Response Outline

Alex Widdowson
Period 5
Benjamin Franklin Summary Response Outline
In 1759, Benjamin Franklin said, “They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.” This can be interpreted in multiple different ways, including that those who give up liberty will not be able to get it back. When people give up a “little” liberty, they give up all of their liberty by letting the government weave itself into their lives.
These words spoken by one of the greatest intellectuals of that time correctly portrays how freedom is lost because of civilians’ acceptance of the NSA. Relating to the unlawfulness of the NSA, it was said that “...almost all of the applicable “law,” when it comes to the National Security Agency and its surveillance practices, was secret until Edward Snowden began releasing his documents” (Van Buren, 2014). Typically, people are given warning if there is a possibility for them to commit a crime, i.e. a sign saying “do not park between hours x and y” or being taught laws through parents and schools. But no one was given a warning through an announcement of the Internet surveillance. They didn't ask for permission for any of those they spy on, so that begs the question: what else can they do or have done without the knowledge of the general public? Apparently, anything judging by the willingness and nonchalance of about half of the people in the United States.
However, the NSA protects the citizens, and if the government truly has bad intentions the general public will push back against the questionable acts. The people still have their freedom to take back their rights. The government isn't allowed to interfere with “the right to peaceably assemble” (Madison). If the people want change, then they are able to get it through protests and petitions. It’s a right, and the most important rights will be defended. Change can happen, even if it's a bit difficult to gain momentum at first.
Many people think that the rights infringed upon via government surveillance aren’t important and don’t pertain to them. We cannot deny that most of the people in the United States will not be arrested because of the NSA, but it’s more complicated than that. If the government can ignore the Fourth Amendment given in the Bill of Rights, then they, if they feel it’s “necessary”, have the power to ignore all of our rights. It happened during the Cold War, when communist practices were prohibited by the Communist Control Act of 1954. Those laws also don’t apply to anyone the president decides to jail. They can target and detain any U.S. citizen without “process of due law.” They are allowed to fly drones over the U.S. to spy on civilians, and that’s not the end of the countless times the Bill of Rights has been ignored.
The metaphorical line has been crossed, and it doesn’t seem like the government is going to step back any time soon. We the people have given them the power to do what they’ve been doing. Liberty can’t be exchanged for safety. Both only exist when they are separate and balanced. “We the people” need to make evaluations about what the government’s intentions are in order to turn back on the Orwellian path this country is headed towards.

Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Othello Act 4 S/R

Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
Othello by Shakespeare demonstrates how words can have a profound effect on others in Act 4.
  • Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas
After Iago had convinced Othello that Desdemona was cheating on him, the idea stuck with him no matter how much Desdemona denied it. This was a result of the words spoken to him.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
Clearly, Othello by Shakespeare displays how ideas can stick with people and have an obvious influence on them.

Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb,correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays___________ because ___________ .
Othello by Shakespeare correctly displays how words have an impact on individuals.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
No matter how many times Desdemona had proclaimed her lack of infidelity, the thought of her and Cassio had led him to flat out discredit every word she said.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (Shakespeare 1.2.13-17).
After the many accusations made by Othello, Desdemona had claimed “I am a Christian! If to preserve this vessel for my lord from any other foul unlawful touch be not to be a strumpet, I am none” (Shakespeare 4.2. 95-98). This was Desdemona’s earnest declaration of loyalty to Othello and to God, and it had been yet again shot down by Othello. After Iago’s manipulation, there was no way Othello could believe she wasn’t cheating. Iago’s repeated words was the final factor that cemented his thoughts, and ultimately changed his way of thinking.
  • Counterclaim 1: However, ....
    • Set-up
Othello had every reason to not trust her, and the proof that was offered by Iago was substantial.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
Othello had said “he had my handkerchief” (Shakespeare 4.1. 25).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain quote, connect to claim
The handkerchief was what had convinced Othello, not Iago’s employment of lies. The handkerchief was important to Othello, so with the fact that it had ended up in the hands of Cassio it wasn’t that far of a stretch to believe that Desdemona was having an affair. Another factor that needed to be considered is that it can be hard to tell how faithful a person is when one is only married to them for a short amount of time. Desdemona had done other rebellious acts, so Othello had no idea if she would do it again. He could have had those suspicions without Iago repeatedly telling him false information.
  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
Some think that Othello could have been suspicious of Desdemona without the words of Iago. We cannot deny that she had disobeyed people who were important to her and could do it again. However, Desdemona had truly believed she had done nothing wrong and she was right in that belief. She even asks “Alas, what ignorant sin have I committed?” (Shakespeare, 4.2. 81). The true culprit was Iago. Without his words to fuel his rage, Othello would have had unwavering thoughts about the kindness and devotion of his wife. She”forsook so many noble matches, her father, her country, and her friends” (Shakespeare 4.2. 146-147). Her love and devotion to Othello is evident and she herself had given no reason for his distrust. Iago knew exactly what he was doing when he convinced Othello of her profane acts, and he had controlled Othello through his words.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
A theme demonstrated in Othello by Shakespeare is the power of words and how they can affect others.

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Othello Act 2 S/R REDO

*edits done in red
Summary Response Outline


Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
Act 2 of Othello by Shakespeare accurately demonstrates how manipulation can be employed.
  • Supporting ideas to prove main ideas
In many instances, the character Iago had appealed to others and guided them in the direction he wanted them to for his own personal gain.
  • Explanation of ideas
He does this in many ways, which include intoxication and carefully placed “suggestions.” He played people without them realizing exactly what was happening. In the events that occurred in Act 2, he was very two-faced and said conflicting ideas to many different people.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
Deception to aid one’s own progress is a single idea correctly displayed in Act 2.

Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, agree/disagree (correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays), because ___________ and ______________
Othello by William Shakespeare correctly portrays the nature of manipulation, because Iago uses deception for his personal gain and he doesn’t care for the safety of others.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
Iago manipulates others by pretending to be on their side, when in reality he plays them for his own plan. While he tricks Cassio into getting drunk and losing his position as lieutenant, he acts as if he is sympathetic about the loss, but in truth he is plotting for revenge.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
    • Iago had said, “ you have lost no reputation at all, unless you repute yourself as a loser” (Shakespeare 2.3.289-290).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim
    • Iago expresses that Cassio is fine and indicates that he was sorry for him but was encouraging, when in reality Iago was the one who had caused him to lose his position. Iago was at fault here because he deliberately intoxicated Cassio. Montano was stabbed due to this occurrence. It can be inferred that Iago didn’t care because everything he does is two-faced. He agrees and is feigns being empathetic with everyone, so he is in good graces with everyone.
  • Counterclaim 1: It can be argued that everything he is doing is pure of heart, and that his own intentions come second to the goals of others.
    • Set-up
    • After Cassio had ruined his reputation, Iago shows compassion by saying that there is a way to get his position back. He must simply go to Desdemona and tell her since she had great influence over Othello and could convince him of reinstating Cassio.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
    • Iago states, “Confess yourself freely to her. Importune her help to put you in your place again” (Shakespeare 2.3.337-339).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim
    • Iago seems to offer condolences for Cassio and help him find a way to prove himself to Desdemona. Iago indicates that he is positive that Cassio will graciously be given his rightful place as lieutenant. Helping Cassio is a thoughtful thing for Iago to do and he doesn’t mention anything he might gain or lose from Cassio talking to Desdemona. Iago is encouraging and helpful, not deceptive.
  • Claim 2:
    • Set-up
Iago doesn’t care about the wellbeing of others. The nature of manipulation and deception can be harsh when it is used for malicious intent.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
When Iago gets Cassio drunk, it caused him to attack Roderigo. When Montano intervened and had fought with Cassio, Montano had said “I am hurt to th’ death. He dies!” (Shakespeare, Act 2.3 175).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim
What Montano says indicates that his violence was peaked and he had suffered physical harm. It can be implied that Iago had thought something like this would happen when he made Cassio drunk, since Iago was jealous of Cassio’s position as lieutenant. Iago was counting on Cassio doing something stupid after he made him drink an extra glass of alcohol. Clearly, the health of others was a factor he disregarded in order for him to reach the ultimate goal of betrayal.   
  • Counterclaim 2: Although, ....
    • Set-up
It could be argued that Iago had no idea that Cassio’s intoxication would have been lead to violent action, and that he cared about Montano’s health after he was stabbed.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
When offering Cassio alcohol, Iago had said “O, but they are our friends! But one cup, I’ll drink for you!” (Shakespeare, 2.3 38-39).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim
In this context, Iago wanted to have a toast to Othello, which is reasonable since he’s one of their leaders in battle. Iago had believed it was just a harmless toast to their respected leader and friend, and could not have known that Cassio would get in a fight with Roderigo and Montano with a serious injury as the result.
  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument?
At first glance, it appears Iago is merely being helpful and kind to many people. It cannot be denied that he had given helpful advice to many people to help them achieve goals or dreams of theirs. But it’s more complicated than that. Iago had told many people one thing and turned around to say another. After giving the wine to Cassio, he says “If I can fasten but one cup upon him with that he hath drunk tonight already, he’ll be as full of quarrel and offense as my young mistress’ dog” (Shakespeare, 2.3 49-52). From that point on, the reader knows that Iago is almost completely sure that a fight will be instigated by Cassio. He is merely being selfish to further his agenda. The fight will only benefit him in the end.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
Manipulation tactics and effects is accurately portrayed in Othello by William Shakespeare.

Thursday, September 17, 2015

Zoe/Alex S/R: Othello Act 2

Summary Response Outline

Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
Act 2 of Othello by Shakespeare accurately demonstrates how manipulation can be employed.
  • Supporting ideas to prove main ideas
In many instances, the character Iago had appealed to others and guided them in the direction he wanted them to for his own personal gain.
  • Explanation of ideas
He does this in many ways, which include intoxication and carefully placed “suggestions.” He played people without them realizing exactly what was happening. In the events that occurred in Act 2, he was very two-faced and said conflicting ideas to many different people.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
Deception to aid one’s own progress is a single idea correctly displayed in Act 2.


Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, agree/disagree (correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays), because ___________ and ______________
Othello by William Shakespeare correctly portrays the nature of manipulation, because Iago uses deception for his personal gain and he doesn’t care for the safety of others.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
Iago manipulates others by pretending to be on their side, when in reality he plays them for his own plan. While he tricks Cassio into getting drunk and losing his position as lieutenant, he acts as if he is sympathetic about the loss, but in truth he is plotting for revenge.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
    • Iago had said, “ you have lost no reputation at all, unless you repute yourself as a loser.” ( 2.3.289-290)

    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim
    • Iago expresses that Cassio is fine and indicates that nothing major really happened, when in reality he lost his position to his general’s wife.
  • Counterclaim 1: However, Iago seems to offer condolences for Cassio and help him find a way to prove himself to Desdemona.
    • Set-up
    • After Cassio had ruined his reputation, Iago shows compassion saying that there is a way to get his position back. He must simply go to Desdemona and tell her.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
    • Iago states, “Confess yourself freely to her. Importune her help to put you in your place again.” (2.3.337-339)
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim
    • Iago persuades Cassio to go to Desdemona freely and confess to her. Iago indicates that he is positive that Cassio will graciously be given his rightful place as lieutenant. Helping Cassio is a thoughtful thing for Iago to do.
  • Claim 2:
    • Set-up
Iago doesn’t care about the wellbeing of others. The nature of manipulation and deception can be harsh when it is used for malicious intent.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
When Iago gets Cassio drunk, it caused him to attack Roderigo. When Montano intervened and had fought with Cassio, Montano had said “I am hurt to th’ death. He dies!” (Shakespeare, Act 2.3 175.)
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim
What Montano says indicates that his violence was peaked and he had suffered physical harm. It can be implied that Iago had thought something like this would happen when he made Cassio drunk, since Iago was jealous of Cassio’s position as lieutenant. Iago was counting on Cassio doing something stupid after he made him drink an extra glass of alcohol. Clearly, the health of others was a factor he disregarded in order for him to reach the ultimate goal of betrayal.   
  • Counterclaim 2: Although, ....
    • Set-up
It could be argued that Iago had no idea that Cassio’s intoxication would have been lead to violent action, and that he cared about Montano’s health after he was stabbed.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
When offering Cassio alcohol, Iago had said “O, but they are our friends! But one cup, I’ll drink for you!” (Shakespeare, 2.3 38-39.)
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim
In this context, Iago wanted to have a toast to Othello, which is reasonable since he’s one of their leaders in battle. Iago had believed it was just a harmless toast to their respected leader and friend, and could not have known that Cassio would get in a fight with Roderigo.
  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument?
At first glance, it appears Iago is merely being helpful and kind to many people. We cannot deny that he had given helpful advice to many people to help them achieve goals or dreams of theirs. But it’s more complicated than that. Iago had told many people one thing and turned around to say another. After giving the wine to Cassio, he says “If I can fasten but one cup upon him with that he hath drunk tonight already, he’ll be as full of quarrel and offense as my young mistress’ dog,” (Shakespeare, 2.3 49-52.) From that point on, the reader knows that Iago is almost completely sure that a fight will be instigated by Cassio. He is merely being selfish to further his agenda. The fight will only benefit him in the end.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
Manipulation tactics and effects is accurately portrayed in Othello by William Shakespeare.

Friday, September 11, 2015

Tia/Alex Othello Act 1 Summary Outline

Summary Response Outline

Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
  • Othello by William Shakespeare accurately depicts how women were not treated as independent people by society.
  • Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas
  • Shakespeare shows how women are treated like they are property throughout Act I of the play. They are required to be obedient to their fathers and some men consider them as incapable to make their own decisions. This is shown in Othello by Desdemona’s father, Brabantio, along with Iago.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
  • There were several occasions in which women were not regarded as equal to men.

Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, agree/disagree (correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays) because ___________ .
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
    • Othello by William Shakespeare correctly portrays how women were treated as property by the men in their life. Iago, the antagonist of the play, is calling to Brabantio in the middle of the night, with the objective of informing him that Othello is with his daughter, Desdemona.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
    • Iago treats Desdemona as if she is a possession by saying, “Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags! Thieves, thieves!” (Shakespeare 1.1 86-87).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim
    • The fact that Desdemona was included in a list of inanimate objects suggests how she was regarded by Iago in terms of worth. Iago does not think of her as a competent human being, but rather as property to be given away or stolen. To make Brabantio angrier at Desdemona, he wants to convey that Desdemona is Brabantio’s property and can only be given away by Brabantio.
  • Counterclaim 1: However, Brabantio and Iago have expressed concern for Desdemona before and treated her as if she were a person.
  • Set-up
  • Brabantio and Iago actually respond harshly to her because they care about her wellbeing. Iago calls to Brabantio in the middle of the night informing him of his daughter’s affairs. He has Desdemona’s best interest in mind. Brabantio reacts severely to the news because he cares about what will happen to her.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
    • When Brabantio is told that his daughter is missing, he responds with, “...Give me a taper. Call up all my people. This accident is not unlike my dream. Belief of it oppresses me already” (Shakespeare 1.1, 156).

    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim
    • Brabantio had evidently cared for his daughter enough for him to worry about her safety. He respects her as a human and is only looking out for her safety when Brabantio reacted in a severe way.
  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
  • At first glance, some may think that Desdemona is given respect and freedom to make her own decisions by her father and other men around her. We cannot deny that Brabantio called Desdemona a “...gentle mistress” (Shakespeare 1.3 205), which could have one be lead to the conclusion that he loves and treasures his daughter. One could also argue that Brabantio only acts possessive of her because he cares about her. However, in other instances that have more importance than this single incident, he and many others treat her like she is something to be won or given. Iago had said, “Put money in thy purse!” (Shakespeare 1.3 382), which had suggested that Desdemona could be bought, and from further inference, could suggest that she is compared to an object that could simply be bought with money rather than love.
  • Concluding sentence: It is clear that the deeply sexist attitudes of men have caused women to be objectified by them in this time period.

Strong Verb List:
Tells, explains, compares, describes, gives, presents, lists, shows, defines, demonstrates, acknowledges, evaluates, classifies, adds, explores, confuses, advises, expresses, defends, asserts, features, depicts, assures, furnishes, encourages, blames, identifies, entertains, confirms, names, illustrates, confronts, offends, invites, considers, offers, judges, contrasts, predicts, misjudges, critiques, proposes, praises, demonstrates, provides, recommends, denounces, traces, simplifies, discourages, answers, solves, endorses, asks, suggests, entices, captures, supports, enumerates, classifies, teaches.


Rebuttal Progression:
1st step: Describe a "naive response" or an opposing interpretation of your position. A "naive view" is a view that you personally disagree with or a view that misses something important. But don't use the word "naive." Say something like…
I used to think that...
A common view is that...
At first glance...
Many think that....
X argues that...
Critics of ____ propose...

2nd step: Briefly explain the logic or reasoning of this "naive view." Answer the question, "Why would someone think this way? Why would they find their answer or solution logical or reasonable?" Why did I think this way? Say something like...
We cannot deny that...
This way of making sense of the position makes a degree of sense [why?]
This position seems reasonable [why?]
I can understand why someone might interpret X in this way [explain how so]
These conclusions seem compelling [why?]


3rd step: Provide a transition that indicates that you are going to contrast this "naive view." Say something like...
However...
But it's more complicated than that...
This interpretation is helpful, but it misses an important point...
This interpretation raises a fundamental question...
While this view seems plausible/reasonable at first glance, we should look closer...